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RHLI Honours and Awards
For most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy. There have been 1,351 Victoria Crosses and 3 Bars awarded worldwide, 94 to Canadians (Canadian-born or serving in the Canadian Army or with a close connection to Canada).
The cross was awarded for an act of the greatest heroism or of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger. It was intended primarily for civilians and award in the military services was confined to actions for which purely military honours were not normally granted and awarded for actions not in the face of the enemy. There have been 10 crosses awarded to Canadians; 8 military, 1 Merchant Navy, and 1 woman.
The Military Cross can be awarded to commissioned officers of the substantive rank of Captain or below (therefore acting and temporary Majors are eligible) or Warrant Officers for distinguished and meritorious services in battle. In 1920, the terms were altered to clearly state the award was for gallant and distinguished services in action and that naval and air force officers could be awarded the cross for gallant and distinguished services on the ground.